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Articles and reports published in English

Bibliography of research after the 2011 Norway Terror Attacks. As of October 1st 2014.

Published articles and books
Working papers and conference papers
Key public documents on the events

Published articles and books

Medicine and psychology

Akkök, C. A. (2012): The Oslo massacre 2011. International Society of Blood Transfusion Science Series, 7: 240–243.

Bang Hansen, M., Nissen, A., & Heir, T. (2013). Proximity to terror and post-traumatic stress: a follow-up survey of governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. BMJ Open, 3(7).

Blix, I., Hansen, M. B., Birkeland, M. S., Nissen, A., & Heir, T. (2013). Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress and psychological adjustment in the aftermath of the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11(1), 160.

Blix, I., Solberg, Ø., & Heir, T. (2014). Centrality of Event and Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After the 2011 Oslo Bombing Attack. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(2), 249–253. doi:10.1002/acp.2988

Dyb, G., Jensen, T. K., Nygaard, E., Ekeberg, O., Diseth, T. H., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Thoresen, S. (2013). Post-traumatic stress reactions in survivors of the 2011 massacre on Utoya Island, Norway. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 361–367. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.133157

Gaarder, C. (2011): The twin terrorist attacks in Norway on July 22, 2011: The trauma center response, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Vol. 73, No. 1.

Leonard, C. H., Annas, G. D., Knoll, J. L., 4th, & Tørrissen, T. (2014). The Case of Anders Behring Breivik - Language of a Lone Terrorist. Behavioral sciences & the law. doi:10.1002/bsl.2117

Lockey, D (2012): The shootings in Oslo and Utøya island July 22, 2011: Lessons for the International EMS community. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 4

Melle, I. (2013): The Breivik case and what psychiatrists can learn from it. World Psychiatry, Vol 12, No. 1

Nordanger, D. Ø., Hysing, M., Posserud, M.-B., Lundervold, A. J., Jakobsen, R., Olff, M., & Stormark, K. M. (2013). Posttraumatic Responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror Among Norwegian High School Students. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 26, No. 6. doi:10.1002/jts.21856

Nordanger, D. Ø., Breivik, K., Haugland, B. S., Lehmann, S., Mæhle, M., Cecilie Braarud, H., & Hysing, M. (2014). Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.23159

Reifels, L., Pietrantoni, L., Prati, G., Kim, Y., Kilpatrick, D. G., Dyb, G., Halpern, J., mfl. (2013). Lessons learned about psychosocial responses to disaster and mass trauma: an international perspective. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.22897

Rimstad, R., Njå, O., Rake, E. L., & Braut, G. S. (2014). Incident Command and Information Flows in a Large-Scale Emergency Operation. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 22(1), 29–38. doi:10.1111/1468–5973.12033

Roth, W. T., & Dager, S. R. (2014). Psychiatry on trial: the Norway 2011 massacre. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 202(3), 181–185. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000109

Schultz, J.-H., Langballe, Å., & Raundalen, M. (2014). Explaining the unexplainable: designing a national strategy on classroom communication concerning the 22 July terror attack in Norway. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.22758

Sollid et al. (2012): Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 3

Thoresen, S., Jensen, T. K., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Dyb, G. (2014). Social support barriers and mental health in terrorist attack survivors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 187–193. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.014

Thoresen, S. et al. (2012): The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island, European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2012, 3: 19709

Social science and humanities

Andersson, M. (2012): The debate about multicultural Norway before and after 22 July 2011. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, Vol. 19, No. 4, 418–427.

Asprem, E. (2011): The Birth of Counterjihadist Terrorism: Reflections on some Unspoken Dimensions of 22/7, Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1.

Bachmann, V., Bialasiewicz, L., Sidaway, J. D., Feldman, M., Holgersen, S., Malm, A., … Simonsen, K. (2012). Bloodlands: critical geographical responses to the 22 July 2011 events in Norway. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 30(2), 191–206.

Bangstad, S. (2012). Terror in Norway. American Anthropologist, 114(2), 351–352.

Bangstad, S. (2014). Anders Breivik and the rise of Islamophobia. London: Zed Books.

Berntzen, L. E., & Sandberg, S. (2014). The Collective Nature of Lone Wolf Terrorism: Anders Behring Breivik and the Anti-Islamic Social Movement. Terrorism and Political Violence, 0(0), 1–21. doi:10.1080/09546553.2013.767245

Von Brömssen, K. (2013). 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence - An Analysis of Discourses from the Extreme. Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, (2013:1), 12–33.

Buuren, J. van. (2013). Spur to violence? Anders Behring Breivik and the Eurabia conspiracy. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4), 205–215.

Carle, R. (2013). Anders Breivik and the Death of Free Speech in Norway. Society, 50(4), 395–401.

Christensen, T., Laegreid, P., & Rykkja, L. H. (2013). After a Terrorist Attack: Challenges for Political and Administrative Leadership in Norway: After a Terrorist Attack. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 21(3), 167–177. doi:10.1111/1468–5973.12019

Eide, E. (2012). The Terror in Norway and the Multiculturalist Scapegoat. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 20(3), 273–284.

Eide, E., Kjølstad, M., & Naper, A. (2013). After the 22 July terror in Norway: Media debates on freedom of expression and multiculturalism. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4). doi:10.2478/njmr–2013–0011

Fangen, K., & Carlsson, Y. (2013). Right-Wing Extremism in Norway: Prevention and Intervention. In R. Melzer & S. Serafin (Ed.), Right-wing Extremism in Europe - Country Analyses, Counter-Strategies and Labor-Market Oriented Exit Strategies (p. 327–357). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Fekete, L. (2012): The Muslim conspiracy theory and the Oslo massacre, Race & Class, vol. 53, No. 3

Frey, E. (2013). Norway’s Media Coverage: The Salute of a Man who does not Regret. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(1), 59–61. doi:10.1080/08900523.2013.755078

Gardell, M. (2014). Crusader Dreams: Oslo 22/7, Islamophobia, and the Quest for a Monocultural Europe. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 129–155. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.849930

Henkel, H. (2012). The Political Anthropology of Scandinavia after July 22, 2011. American Anthropologist, 114(2), 353–355.

Hervik, P., & Boisen, S. (2013). Danish media coverage of 22/7. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4), 197–204.

Hervik, P., & Meret, S. (2013). Erostratus unbound: Norway’s 22/7 converging frames of war. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4), 179–186.

Jakobsson, N., & Blom, S. (2014). Did the 2011 Terror Attacks in Norway Change Citizens’ Attitudes Toward Immigrants? International Journal of Public Opinion Research, edt036. doi:10.1093/ijpor/edt036

Johnsen, M. H. (2014). A Case Study of Anders B. Breivik’s Intergroup Conceptualisation. Journal of Terrorism Research, 5(2).

Kellner, D. (2012). The Dark Side of the Spectacle: Terror in Norway and the UK Riots. Cultural Politics, 8(1), 1–43. doi:10.1215/17432197–1571967

Leer-Salvesen, P. (2013). Theology after the Massacre in Norway. Dialog, 52(2), 110–120.

Lied, S., & Undseth Bakke, S. (2013). Canon and archive in messages from Oslo Cathedral Square in the aftermath of July 22nd 2011. Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, (2013:1), 34–56.

Milbradt, B. (2013). “I Am First and Foremost a Man of Logic” – Stereotyping, the Syndrome Character of Prejudice, and a Glance at Anders Breivik’s Manifesto. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 7(1), 150–163.

Mogensen, K. (2013). Visualizing a Mass Murder: The Portraits of Anders Bering Breivik in Danish National Dailies. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(1), 64–67.

Murer, J. S. (2011). Security, Identity, and the Discourse of Conflation in Far-Right Violence. Journal of Terrorism Research, 2(2).

Pantucci, R (2011): What Have We Learned about Lone Wolves from Anders Behring Breivik?, Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol 5, No 5–6

Ravndal, J (2012): A Pre-Trial Profile of Anders Behring Breivik, CTC Sentinel. Vol. 5, No. 3

Ravndal, J (2012): A Post-Trial Profile of Anders Behring Breivik, CTC Sentinel, Vol. 5, No. 10

Refsdal, N. O. (2014). Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(0). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.23215

Reinertsen, A. B., Ryen, A., Otterstad, A. M., & Ben-Horin, O. (2013). The Inefficiency of Knowledge and the Limits of Explanations; the Necessity of Critique. Qualitative Inquiry, 19(3), 147–162. doi:10.1177/1077800412466047

Rykkja, L. H., Lægreid, P., & Lise Fimreite, A. (2011). Attitudes towards anti-terror measures: the role of trust, political orientation and civil liberties support. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 4(2), 219–237. doi:10.1080/17539153.2011.586206

Sandberg, S. (2013): Are self-narratives strategic or determined, unified or fragmented? Reading Breivik’s Manifesto in light of narrative criminology. Acta Sociologica, vol. 56 no. 1, Sage Publications

Stroud, J. (2013). The Importance of Music to Anders Behring Breivik. Journal of Terrorism Research, 4(1).

Titley, G. (2013). They called a war, and someone came: The communicative politics of Breivik’s ideoscape. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4), 216–224.

Turner-Graham, E. (2014). “Breivik is my Hero”: the Dystopian World of Extreme Right Youth on the Internet. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 60(3), 416–430. doi:10.1111/ajph.12070

Von Brömssen, K. (2013). 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence - An Analysis of Discourses from the Extreme. Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, (2013:1), 12–33.

Walton, S. (2012): Anti-feminism and Misogyny in Breivik’s “Manifesto”, NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, Vol. 20, No. 1

Whitehouse, G. (2013). The Murderer’s Salute: News Images of Breivik’s Defiance After Killing 77 in Oslo. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(1), 57–59. doi:10.1080/08900523.2013.755077

Wiggen, M. (2012). Rethinking Anti-Immigration Rhetoric after the Oslo and Utøya Terror Attacks. New Political Science, 34(4), 585–604. doi:10.1080/07393148.2012.729744

Wollebæk, D; Enjolras, B; Steen-Johnsen, K and Ødegård G (2012): After Utøya: How a High-Trust Society Reacts to Terror—Trust and Civic Engagement in the Aftermath of July 22. PS: Political Science & Politics, 45, pp 32–37

Wollebæk, D., Steen-Johnsen, K., Enjolras, B., & Ødegård, G. (2013). Rallying Without Fear. In S. J. Sinclair & D. Antonius (Ed.), The Political Psychology of Terrorism Fears (p. 246–262). Oxford University Press.

Working papers and conference papers

Christensen, T. et al (2012): How to cope with a Terrorist Attack? – A Challenge for the Political and Administrative Leadership, COCOPS Working Paper No. 6

De Graaf, B., ven der Heide, L., Wanmaker, S., & Weggemans, D. (2013). The Anders Behring Breivik Trial: Performing Justice, Defending Democracy. ICCT Research Paper. The Hague: The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT) – The Hague.

Dyregrov, K., Kristensen, P., & Johnsen, I. (2013). Bereaved parents, partners, siblings and friends after the Utøya terrorist attack of July 22nd 2011. Bergen: Centre for Crisis Psychology.

Perng, S. et al. (2012): Peripheral response: Microblogging during the 22/7/2011 Norway attacks. in Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference – Vancouver, Canada, April 2012. Academic Publishers.

Key public documents on the events

22 July Commission

On the 12th of August the Cabinet appointed lawyer Alexandra Bech-Gjørv to head the independent fact finding commission. The commission delivered its report in August 2012, and found that

  1. the attack on the government complex in Oslo could have been prevented by effective implementation of security measures that had already been approved,
  2. a more rapid police operation to protect people on Utøya Island was a realistic possibility and the gunman could have been stopped earlier on 22 July and
  3. more security and emergency measures to prevent further attacks and “mitigate adverse effects” should have been implemented on 22 July.

A summary of the report is available in English here.

Directorate of Health review of the health services

The Ministry of Health and Care Services commissioned the Directorate of Health to conduct a review of the health sector’s response to the terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011. The main question in the remit from the Ministry was to elucidate «how well the health service and the health authorities, given the resources at their disposal, managed to safeguard public life and health». The inquiry was lead by Professor Inggard Lereim.

The main finding in the report, Learning for better preparedness, was that the health sector responded very well to its greatest ever challenge. This was due to high capacity, extensive experience, an ability to improvise and a culture for learning from previous incidents.

The report is available in full in English here.

Judgment from the Oslo District Court (Oslo tingrett)

The English translation of the judgement in the criminal case against Anders Behring Breivik can be found here.

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