19 When, in the course of their work, researchers become aware of matters that they consider to be in conflict with ethical principles or their social responsibility, they must have the possibility and, depending on the circumstances, the duty, to act as whistleblower.

In concrete terms, this means that researchers must consider carefully

a) the possibilities for resolving the conflict internally in the organisation

b) the possible consequences of such whistleblowing for the researcher personally, the research institution and society, both if the circumstances reported are correct and if they are not correct

c) the possible consequences of failing to act as a whistleblower

d) the whistleblowing channels that best lend themselves to minimise conflict and optimise actions to remedy the damage

e) possible other motives behind the whistleblowing that may affect the researcher's own objectivity

20 Research institutions must have independent mechanisms that can support employees in whistleblowing situations.

It is important that all parties involved in a whistleblowing situation respect the fact that the process must be dealt with in a neutral manner. An independent body must investigate the conflict, and the whistleblower must be protected against unreasonable or untimely reactions.

This means that

a) research institutions must have mechanisms for taking care of both the whistleblower and the subject of the disclosure

b) research institutions must have mechanisms for conducting such an independent scrutiny of whistleblowing cases in the institution

c) these mechanisms must be known to the researchers at the institution

[9] Act relating to working environment, working hours and employment protection, etc. (Working Environment Act)