8 Researchers must clarify the degree of uncertainty in their research and evaluate the risk associated with the research findings

Researchers must clarify the degree of certainty and precision that characterises their research results. They must be particularly meticulous about clarifying the relative certainty and validity range of their findings. In addition to presenting knowledge critically and in context, researchers must strive to point out any risk and uncertainty factors that may have a bearing on the interpretation and possible applications of the research findings. Communicating the relative certainty and validity of knowledge is part of a researcher's ethical responsibility and effort to achieve objectivity. Where possible, researchers should also use appropriate methods for demonstrating the uncertainty of the research. Research institutions have an obligation to teach these methods to their employees and students.

9 Researchers must strive to observe the precautionary principle

Where there is plausible, but uncertain knowledge to the effect that a technological application or a development of a research field may lead to ethically unacceptable consequences for health, society, or the environment, the researchers in the field in question must strive to contribute knowledge that is relevant for observing the precautionary principle. This means that researchers must work together with other relevant parties in observing the precautionary principle. The precautionary principle is defined here as follows: "When human activities may lead to morally unacceptable harm that is scientifically plausible but uncertain, actions shall be taken to avoid or diminish that harm." This principle is important for a large part of science and technology research, and researchers have a shared responsibility for ensuring that evaluations are based on the precautionary principle and contribute to avoiding or diminishing harm.