1 Research has an independent responsibility for the role it plays in social developments.

Researchers and research institutions must contribute to the collective accumulation of knowledge and to resolving major challenges facing the global community. Research must not be oriented in such a way that it comes into conflict with democratic developments or international conventions designed to promote peace. Research must not be in breach of rights laid down in recognised international conventions on civil, political, economic, social and cultural human rights. Where scientific and technological development can be misused to undermine the right of self-determination and human dignity and the democratic rights of individuals, researchers must strive to prevent and refrain from taking part in any such misuse of research. Researchers have an independent responsibility to ensure that research benefits society, directly or indirectly, and to minimise risk.

2 Research should be compatible with sustainable development.

Researchers and research institutions have a collective responsibility to contribute to sustainable development and the preservation of biological diversity. The concept of "sustainability" encompasses economic, social, institutional, and environmental aspects.

3 Research has a responsibility to contribute to greater global justice.

Research results and their application must be shared with society as a whole, both nationally and globally, and in particular with developing countries. Research must not be oriented in such a way as to exacerbate global injustice. The benefits, drawbacks, and risk associated with research activities and technological development should be shared fairly. As a general rule, the knowledge ensuing from research should be made available to all. Researchers have a responsibility to impart knowledge where such knowledge can make a difference in rectifying imbalances in the distribution of wealth.