21 Research institutions should reward dissemination that popularises research as well as research-based participation in public debates.

This means that

a) general research dissemination will be a standard criterion in any evaluation of research communities

b) research institutions have a system where research dissemination counts among the characteristics that are rewarded when they appoint and promote researchers

22 Research institutions and researchers are both responsible for disseminating research findings.

This means that

a) research institutions should facilitate active use of a variety of appropriate means of dissemination

b) research institutions should develop procedures for assessing the relevance of research for various user groups and society as a whole

c) research institutions and individual researchers should regularly consider whether their own research is suitable for dissemination to a broader academic or non-scientific public and follow up with appropriate action

23 Researchers should not misuse their titles to add weight to their views

Researchers should contribute to the public discourse with scientific argumentation.

Such participation means that researchers use their scientific expertise as a basis for contributing to the formation of public opinion. It may be a matter of contributing information in an area that is the subject of debate, taking a reasoned position on controversial subjects, or trying to put new topics on the public agenda.

Participation in the public discourse places great demands on objectivity, reasoning, and clarity. There may be unclear transitions between participation as a scientist and participation as an ordinary citizen. When scientists take part as citizens, they should not use their title or refer to special scientific expertise.