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  1. Human biological material

    Human biological material Medical and healthcare research can be divided into three main types: research on humans, research on human biological material and research on personal data. Human biological material is defined in section 4 of the

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on human biological material/Human biological material/

  2. Protection of research subjects

    Research that involves research subjects raises special requirements regarding respect for the individual subject.[4] Protection of research subjects 10 Researchers must respect the requirement of freely given, informed consent When research

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Protection of research subjects/

  3. B) Respect for individuals

    B) Respect for individuals 5 Human dignity Researchers must base their work on a fundamental respect for human dignity. Human dignity is closely linked to individual inviolability. Respect for human dignity and personal integrity is formalised and

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences, Humanities, Law and Theology/B) Respect for individuals/

  4. Protection of privacy

    Protection of privacy Information about persons who take part in research projects shall have an "adequate level of protection", i.e. be treated in compliance with laws and rules, and if relevant also in accordance with promises made to

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Protection of privacy/

  5. Duty of secrecy

    Duty of secrecy Researchers face issues relating to duty of secrecy in two different contexts. First, these issues will arise when information has to be obtained from sources that are themselves subject to a duty of secrecy. In such cases, it

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Duty of secrecy/

  6. Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual

    Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/

  7. Personal data

    Personal data Personal data are data which can be traced back to individuals. Personal data are divided into two main types: directly or indirectly personally identifiable data, and anonymised data, each with their own rules for processing. Data

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Personal data/

  8. Confidentiality

    Confidentiality Confidentiality means that information is restricted to those authorised to have access to it. Access restriction is only one aspect of confidentiality. The researcher's assurance of confidentiality to the research subject is

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Confidentiality/

  9. Responsibility concerning the individual

    Responsibility concerning the individual In the conduct of research involving human beings, the researcher is obliged to proceed on the assumption that individual subjects claim the right to protection of their living space and personal integrity.

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Responsibility concerning the individual/

  10. Consent

    Consent Freely given informed consent is regarded as one of the most central requirements for research on humans where the research entails recording of data and/or any kind of discomfort, inconvenience or risk to the subjects of the research.

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Consent/

  11. Questionnaire surveys

    Questionnaire surveys Questionnaire surveys (interview surveys, surveys, opinion polls) are without doubt the most widely used data collection method in the social sciences. In quantitative surveys, the same questions are presented to a relatively

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Methods and approaches/Questionnaire surveys/

  12. The Personal Data Act

    The Personal Data Act The Personal Data Act concerns the processing of personal data that are not covered by the Health Research Act. Personal data acquired and used in social science or scientific projects are covered by the Personal Data

    /The Research Ethics Library/Practical information/Legal statutes and guidelines/The Personal Data Act/