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  1. Guidance and collegiality

    Guidance and collegiality Providing advice and guidance is a complex business that is undertaken in a variety of contexts. The term for the activity itself – guidance – is similarly complex. We find equivalent or related activities referred to by

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Integrity and collegiality/Guidance and collegiality/

  2. Shades of grey in academic citation practice

    Shades of grey in academic citation practice Academic citation practices are often described in black and white terms. Concrete examples are often classified as ‘correct’ or ‘wrong’, or may be ‘honest’ or ‘fraudulent’. This type of categorization

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Integrity and collegiality/Shades of grey in academic citation practice/

  3. Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities

    Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities Writing in partnership with others can be rewarding. Responsible discussion among colleagues about the production of a jointly authored piece of writing can improve its

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Authorship and co-authorship/Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities/

  4. Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research

    Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research Authorship is one of the most controversial topics in medical research ethics. Accusations of unjustified authorship are the most frequent cause of investigations into dishonesty in

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Authorship and co-authorship/Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research/

  5. Payment of research subjects

    Payment of research subjects Paying or otherwise compensating people who agree to participate in research is a practice that has existed for many years, not least in medical research. However, it is still a controversial practice among researchers

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Payment of research subjects/

  6. Protection of privacy

    Protection of privacy Information about persons who take part in research projects shall have an "adequate level of protection", i.e. be treated in compliance with laws and rules, and if relevant also in accordance with promises made to

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Protection of privacy/

  7. Duty of secrecy

    Duty of secrecy Researchers face issues relating to duty of secrecy in two different contexts. First, these issues will arise when information has to be obtained from sources that are themselves subject to a duty of secrecy. In such cases, it

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Duty of secrecy/

  8. Ethnic groups

    Ethnic groups The concept of “ethnic groups” will in this context include national minorities, immigrants and peoples indigenous to Norway. Among the particular challenges associated with research on ethnic groups are: their status as a

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on particular groups/Ethnic groups/

  9. Persons with limited life expectancy

    Persons with limited life expectancy Patients with limited life expectancy are encountered in most areas of medicine. The term implies that patients have been diagnosed with a terminal disease and that doctors can predict (make a prognosis for)

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on particular groups/Persons with limited life expectancy/

  10. Embryo, stem cell and foetus

    Embryo, stem cell and foetus Central to research ethics is the principle that a human being cannot be used solely as a tool for research. To do so would be an affront to human dignity. But does a fertilised egg have human dignity? Or can we use

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on human biological material/Embryo, stem cell and foetus/

  11. Human biological material

    Human biological material Medical and healthcare research can be divided into three main types: research on humans, research on human biological material and research on personal data. Human biological material is defined in section 4 of the

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on human biological material/Human biological material/

  12. From Science in Society to Society in Science

    From Science in Society to Society in Science In the post-World War II period, two different paradigms have characterised the debate on science and society. One is about division of labour and separation between science and society, and the

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/The research/societal relationship/From Science in Society to Society in Science/

  13. Research ethics and patents

    Research ethics and patents Patent ethics are usually regarded as a social and political issue. For example, patents are not explicitly mentioned in the ethical guidelines for research. However, ethical issues related to patents are relevant to

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/The research/societal relationship/Research ethics and patents/

  14. Feeding back the findings

    Feeding back the findings People who volunteer to take part in research projects make significant and altruistic contributions. The projects will obtain information that may be of interest and importance to these participants. Sometimes it will

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/The research/societal relationship/Feeding back the findings/

  15. Biotechnology and gene technology

    Biotechnology and gene technology Research and development in modern biotechnology and gene technology cover a broad area from stem cell research and the development of medical genetic testing to the use of genetically modified plants,

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research and environment/Biotechnology and gene technology/

  16. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are plants, animals or bacteria to which new DNA, often composed from different sources, has been added artificially. An overarching ethical question is whether humans

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research and environment/Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)/

  17. Climate

    Climate The climate problem, or the fact that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2 reinforce the natural greenhouse effect, has been described as the greatest challenge of our times. It is of little use to solve other challenges such

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research and environment/Climate/

  18. Synthetic biology

    Synthetic biology The possibilities associated with the creation of new genetic material in the laboratory attract a great deal of attention. In 2003, the polio virus was the first living organism to be synthesised in a laboratory. The polio virus

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research and environment/Synthetic biology/

  19. Bias

    Bias Bias (skewness) in research may give rise to results that fail to reflect reality. Unintended bias may occur at all stages of the research process, and the researcher needs to be aware of this. Intended bias is regarded as misconduct. Bias

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Particular problem areas/Bias/

  20. About NEM

    About NEM The Committee has 12 members with different professional backgrounds. Traditionally, the committee has been chaired by a physician. Pursuant to its charter the Committee, in addition to having medical competence, shall include members

    /Our work/About us/The National Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (NEM)/About NEM/

  21. Contact NENT

    Contact NENT Contacts: Director Helene Ingierd, phone +47 23 31 83 04 post@etikkom.no Chair Øyvind Mikkelsen oyvind.mikkelsen@chem.ntnu.no

    /Our work/About us/The National Committee for Research Ethics in Science and Technology (NENT)/Contact NENT/

  22. Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (NESH)

    Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (NESH)

    /Our work/About us/The National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (NESH)/Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (NESH)/

  23. Report suspicion of research misconduct

    Report suspicion of research misconduct Report to the National Commission for the Investigation of Research Misconduct – suspicion of research misconduct

    /Our work/About us/The National Commission for the Investigation of Research Misconduct/Report suspicion of research misconduct/

  24. Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains

    Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains

    /Our work/About us/The National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains/Members of The National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains/

  25. Enebakk, Vidar

    Vidar Enebakk Director, The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee for the Social Sciences and the Humanities, and theThe National Committee for Research Ethics on Human Remains. vidar.enebakk@etikkom.no Phone: 0047 23 31 83 02

    /Our work/About us/Secretariat staff/Enebakk, Vidar/