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  1. Guidance and collegiality

    Guidance and collegiality Providing advice and guidance is a complex business that is undertaken in a variety of contexts. The term for the activity itself – guidance – is similarly complex. We find equivalent or related activities referred to by

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Integrity and collegiality/Guidance and collegiality/

  2. Shades of grey in academic citation practice

    Shades of grey in academic citation practice Academic citation practices are often described in black and white terms. Concrete examples are often classified as ‘correct’ or ‘wrong’, or may be ‘honest’ or ‘fraudulent’. This type of categorization

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Integrity and collegiality/Shades of grey in academic citation practice/

  3. Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities

    Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities Writing in partnership with others can be rewarding. Responsible discussion among colleagues about the production of a jointly authored piece of writing can improve its

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Authorship and co-authorship/Co-authorship in the social sciences, law, theology and the humanities/

  4. Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research

    Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research Authorship is one of the most controversial topics in medical research ethics. Accusations of unjustified authorship are the most frequent cause of investigations into dishonesty in

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Authorship and co-authorship/Authorship and co-authorship in medical and health research/

  5. Payment of research subjects

    Payment of research subjects Paying or otherwise compensating people who agree to participate in research is a practice that has existed for many years, not least in medical research. However, it is still a controversial practice among researchers

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Payment of research subjects/

  6. Protection of privacy

    Protection of privacy Information about persons who take part in research projects shall have an "adequate level of protection", i.e. be treated in compliance with laws and rules, and if relevant also in accordance with promises made to

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Protection of privacy/

  7. Duty of secrecy

    Duty of secrecy Researchers face issues relating to duty of secrecy in two different contexts. First, these issues will arise when information has to be obtained from sources that are themselves subject to a duty of secrecy. In such cases, it

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Data protection and responsibility concerning the individual/Duty of secrecy/

  8. Ethnic groups

    Ethnic groups The concept of “ethnic groups” will in this context include national minorities, immigrants and peoples indigenous to Norway. Among the particular challenges associated with research on ethnic groups are: their status as a

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on particular groups/Ethnic groups/

  9. Persons with limited life expectancy

    Persons with limited life expectancy Patients with limited life expectancy are encountered in most areas of medicine. The term implies that patients have been diagnosed with a terminal disease and that doctors can predict (make a prognosis for)

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on particular groups/Persons with limited life expectancy/

  10. Embryo, stem cell and foetus

    Embryo, stem cell and foetus Central to research ethics is the principle that a human being cannot be used solely as a tool for research. To do so would be an affront to human dignity. But does a fertilised egg have human dignity? Or can we use

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Research on human biological material/Embryo, stem cell and foetus/

  11. Methods for ethical assessment

    Methods for ethical assessment When an ethical assessment is made, a method is invariably applied, explicitly or implicitly. In some cases, such as when public committees undertake ethical assessments, it is crucial to thoroughly consider the

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Systhematic and historical perspectives/Methods for ethical assessment/

  12. The history of research ethics

    The history of research ethics Throughout the ages – and especially after the scientific revolution in the 17th century – the behaviour of researchers has been subject to some form of regulations that have reflected the normative system

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Systhematic and historical perspectives/The history of research ethics/

  13. Deception research

    Deception research Deception research is an ethical dilemma in itself. Deception in research entails that participants are not fully informed of the purpose of the study. Valuable insight can also be obtained in this way into factors which would

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Methods and approaches/Deception research/

  14. Experiments

    Experiments Experiments have been a crucial element of research throughout the modern period. However, experiments are associated with particular problems in terms of research ethics. Experiments involving humans require reflection on the

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Methods and approaches/Experiments/

  15. Qualitative methods

    Qualitative methods Ethical considerations play a role in all types of qualitative studies, i.e. studies that focus on meaning and content, as opposed to breadth and scope, as in quantitative studies. Data collection Interviews Questionnaire

    /The Research Ethics Library/Introduction/Methods and approaches/Qualitative methods/

  16. Fraud and plagiarism

    /The Research Ethics Library/Topics/Integrity and collegiality/Fraud and plagiarism/

  17. Guidelines drawn up by The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee for medical and health research (NEM)

    Guidelines drawn up by The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee for medical and health research (NEM) The work of the medical research ethics committees is based on international conventions such as the Declaration of Helsinki and the

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Medical and health research/Guidelines drawn up by The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committee for medical and health research (NEM)/

  18. Summary

    Summary Research ethics The concept of "research ethics" refers to a broad set of standards, values, and institutional arrangements that contribute to constituting and regulating research activities. These include the duty of honesty in

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Summary/

  19. Research ethics

    These guidelines are about standards of good research practice. They provide an expression of ethical standards to which the research community is committed. Some of these guidelines are also to be found in legislation: for example, the protection

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Research ethics/

  20. Scientific integrity, truthfulness and accountability

    The next guidelines concern the exercise of research ethics through good scientific practice. Scientific integrity, truthfulness and accountability 4 Researchers are responsible for conducting high-quality research characterised by scientific

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Scientific integrity, truthfulness and accountability/

  21. Uncertainty, risk, and the precautionary principle

    Research may have far-reaching consequences for health, society, or the environment. It is therefore important that the uncer-tainty and risk that are often accompanying factors when research becomes practical and concrete, are not neglected, and

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Uncertainty, risk, and the precautionary principle/

  22. Protection of research subjects

    Research that involves research subjects raises special requirements regarding respect for the individual subject.[4] Protection of research subjects 10 Researchers must respect the requirement of freely given, informed consent When research

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Protection of research subjects/

  23. The relationship between research and other knowledge-bearers and forms of knowledge

    There are a multitude of types of knowledge in all societies. Professionals as well as laypeople have different kinds of experience-based knowledge. Individuals and local communities may possess specific <i>local knowledge. Traditional

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/The relationship between research and other knowledge-bearers and forms of knowledge/

  24. Proposed scientific oath

    The research ethics guidelines should be well known in research communities and should especially reach those who are newly recruited into the research community. The guidelines mean that the individual researcher makes a personal commitment. We

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for research ethics in science and technology/Proposed scientific oath/

  25. Preface

    The three National Research Ethics Committees (NEM, NENT and NESH) were established in 1990, based on the Proposition to the Storting No. 28 (1988–1989) Om forskning. In 2007, the Research Ethics Act provided a legal mandate for the three

    /Ethical guidelines for research/Guidelines for Research Ethics in the Social Sciences, Humanities, Law and Theology/Preface/